backwash - This is a term used to describe a situation where students only learn what they think they will be tested on. That is, the assessment has a bigger influence on students' behaviour than the curriculum, leading to surface learning. See Biggs (2003).
situative learning - This is an approach to learning which argues that people learn through participation in specific communities and associated practices. This perspective encourages educators to construct or facilitate environments where students can participate in social practices and where dialogue is encouraged. See also: situated cognition.